Literatuur ‘Metabool syndroom ontmantelt het immuunsysteem’

SARS-CoV-2 zette begin 2020 de wereld in een pauzestand. Wetenschappers draaiden overuren om te ontdekken hoe dit virus werkt, en in welke lichamen het zijn kans schoon schiet. Frits Muskiet ziet insulineresistentie als rode draad in het ziektebeeld en ontrafelt een centrale rol voor het ‘verzadigingshormoon’ leptine. Een verrassende les immunologie voor beginners.

Hier vindt u de verwijzingen naar de literatuur waarop het artikel in Uitzicht nr. 6 van 2021 gebaseerd is.

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https://devrijeomroep.nl/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/COVID_rapport.pdf

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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33330597/

Green WD, Beck MA. Obesity Impairs the Adaptive Immune Response to Influenza Virus. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Nov;14(Supplement_5):S406-S409. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201706-447AW. PMID: 29161078; PMCID: PMC5711276.        

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29161078/

Hur SJ, Kim DH, Chun SC, Lee SK. Effect of adenovirus and influenza virus infection on obesity. Life Sci. 2013 Oct 11;93(16):531-5. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2013.08.016. Epub 2013 Sep 2. PMID: 24007799.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24007799/

Popkin BM, Du S, Green WD, Beck MA, Algaith T, Herbst CH, Alsukait RF, Alluhidan M, Alazemi N, Shekar M. Individuals with obesity and COVID-19: A global perspective on the epidemiology and biological relationships. Obes Rev. 2020 Nov;21(11):e13128. doi: 10.1111/obr.13128. Epub 2020 Aug 26. PMID: 32845580; PMCID: PMC7461480.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32845580/

Drucker DJ. Diabetes, obesity, metabolism, and SARS-CoV-2 infection: the end of the beginning. Cell Metab. 2021 Mar 2;33(3):479-498. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2021.01.016. Epub 2021 Jan 21. PMID: 33529600; PMCID: PMC7825982.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33529600/

Zakka K, Chidambaram S, Mansour S, Mahawar K, Salminen P, Almino R, Schauer P, Kinross J, Purkayastha S; PanSurg Collaborative. SARS-CoV-2 and Obesity: “CoVesity”-a Pandemic Within a Pandemic. Obes Surg. 2021 Apr;31(4):1745-1754. doi: 10.1007/s11695-020-04919-0. Epub 2021 Jan 22. PMID: 33479921; PMCID: PMC7819768.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33479921/

³              Green WD, Beck MA. Obesity Impairs the Adaptive Immune Response to Influenza Virus. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Nov;14(Supplement_5):S406-S409. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201706-447AW. PMID: 29161078; PMCID: PMC5711276.        

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29161078/

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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32416070/

⁵              Smith AG, Sheridan PA, Harp JB, Beck MA. Diet-induced obese mice have increased mortality and altered immune responses when infected with influenza virus. J Nutr. 2007 May;137(5):1236-43. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.5.1236. PMID: 17449587.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17449587/

Guglielmi V, Colangeli L, D’Adamo M, Sbraccia P. Susceptibility and Severity of Viral Infections in Obesity: Lessons from Influenza to COVID-19. Does Leptin Play a Role? Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 20;22(6):3183. doi: 10.3390/ijms22063183. PMID: 33804765; PMCID: PMC8003928.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33804765/

Blanco-Melo D, Nilsson-Payant BE, Liu WC, Uhl S, Hoagland D, Møller R, Jordan TX, Oishi K, Panis M, Sachs D, Wang TT, Schwartz RE, Lim JK, Albrecht RA, tenOever BR. Imbalanced Host Response to SARS-CoV-2 Drives Development of COVID-19. Cell. 2020 May 28;181(5):1036-1045.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.026. Epub 2020 May 15. PMID: 32416070; PMCID: PMC7227586.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32416070/

Iwasaki A, Wong P. The Immune Havoc of COVID-19. The virus flourishes by undermining the body’s chemical defense system. January 1, 2021. Accessed 18 April 2021.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-immune-havoc-of-covid-19/

Carvalho T, Krammer F, Iwasaki A. The first 12 months of COVID-19: a timeline of immunological insights. Nat Rev Immunol. 2021 Apr;21(4):245-256. doi: 10.1038/s41577-021-00522-1. Epub 2021 Mar 15. PMID: 33723416; PMCID: PMC7958099.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33723416/

⁶              Dan JM, Mateus J, Kato Y, Hastie KM, Yu ED, Faliti CE, Grifoni A, Ramirez SI, Haupt S, Frazier A, Nakao C, Rayaprolu V, Rawlings SA, Peters B, Krammer F, Simon V, Saphire EO, Smith DM, Weiskopf D, Sette A, Crotty S. Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection. Science. 2021 Feb 5;371(6529):eabf4063. doi: 10.1126/science.abf4063. Epub 2021 Jan 6. PMID: 33408181; PMCID: PMC7919858.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33408181/

⁷              Jarjour NN, Masopust D, Jameson SC. T Cell Memory: Understanding COVID-19. Immunity. 2021 Jan 12;54(1):14-18. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.12.009. Epub 2020 Dec 19. PMID: 33406391; PMCID: PMC7749639.      

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33406391/

                Dan JM, Mateus J, Kato Y, Hastie KM, Yu ED, Faliti CE, Grifoni A, Ramirez SI, Haupt S, Frazier A, Nakao C, Rayaprolu V, Rawlings SA, Peters B, Krammer F, Simon V, Saphire EO, Smith DM, Weiskopf D, Sette A, Crotty S. Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection. Science. 2021 Feb 5;371(6529):eabf4063. doi: 10.1126/science.abf4063. Epub 2021 Jan 6. PMID: 33408181; PMCID: PMC7919858.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33408181/

Plüddemann A, Aronson JK. COVID-19 infection? Why immunity is about more than antibodies October 19, 2020. Accessed 18 April 2021

https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/what-is-the-role-of-t-cells-in-covid-19-infection-why-immunity-is-about-more-than-antibodies/

⁸              Netea MG, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Domínguez-Andrés J, Curtis N, van Crevel R, van de Veerdonk FL, Bonten M. Trained Immunity: a Tool for Reducing Susceptibility to and the Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Cell. 2020 May 28;181(5):969-977. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.042. Epub 2020 May 4. PMID: 32437659; PMCID: PMC7196902.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32437659/

Ieronymaki E, Daskalaki MG, Lyroni K, Tsatsanis C. Insulin Signaling and Insulin Resistance Facilitate Trained Immunity in Macrophages Through Metabolic and Epigenetic Changes. Front Immunol. 2019 Jun 12;10:1330. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01330. PMID: 31244863; PMCID: PMC6581697.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31244863/

Moorlag SJCFM, van Deuren RC, van Werkhoven CH, Jaeger M, Debisarun P, Taks E, Mourits VP, Koeken VACM, de Bree LCJ, Ten Doesschate T, Cleophas MC, Smeekens S, Oosting M, van de Veerdonk FL, Joosten LAB, Ten Oever J, van der Meer JWM, Curtis N, Aaby P, Stabell-Benn C, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Bonten M, van Crevel R, Netea MG. Safety and COVID-19 Symptoms in Individuals Recently Vaccinated with BCG: a Retrospective Cohort Study. Cell Rep Med. 2020 Aug 25;1(5):100073. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100073. Epub 2020 Aug 5. PMID: 32838341; PMCID: PMC7405881.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32838341/

⁹             Fanucchi S, Domínguez-Andrés J, Joosten LAB, Netea MG, Mhlanga MM. The Intersection of Epigenetics and Metabolism in Trained Immunity. Immunity. 2021 Jan 12;54(1):32-43. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.011. Epub 2020 Nov 20. PMID: 33220235

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33220235/

¹º             Jarjour NN, Masopust D, Jameson SC. T Cell Memory: Understanding COVID-19. Immunity. 2021 Jan 12;54(1):14-18. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.12.009. Epub 2020 Dec 19. PMID: 33406391; PMCID: PMC7749639.      

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33406391/

Plüddemann A, Aronson JK. COVID-19 infection? Why immunity is about more than antibodies October 19, 2020. Accessed 18 April 2021

https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/what-is-the-role-of-t-cells-in-covid-19-infection-why-immunity-is-about-more-than-antibodies/

¹¹             Macintyre AN, Gerriets VA, Nichols AG, Michalek RD, Rudolph MC, Deoliveira D, Anderson SM, Abel ED, Chen BJ, Hale LP, Rathmell JC. The glucose transporter Glut1 is selectively essential for CD4 T cell activation and effector function. Cell Metab. 2014 Jul 1;20(1):61-72. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.05.004. Epub 2014 Jun 12. PMID: 24930970; PMCID: PMC4079750.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24930970/

¹²             Francisco V, Pino J, Campos-Cabaleiro V, Ruiz-Fernández C, Mera A, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Gómez R, Gualillo O. Obesity, Fat Mass and Immune System: Role for Leptin. Front Physiol. 2018 Jun 1;9:640. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00640. PMID: 29910742; PMCID: PMC5992476.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29910742/

¹³             Hotamisligil GS, Erbay E. Nutrient sensing and inflammation in metabolic diseases. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008 Dec;8(12):923-34. doi: 10.1038/nri2449. PMID: 19029988; PMCID: PMC2814543.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19029988/

Straub RH, Cutolo M, Buttgereit F, Pongratz G. Energy regulation and neuroendocrine-immune control in chronic inflammatory diseases. J Intern Med. 2010 Jun;267(6):543-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02218.x. Epub 2010 Jan 28. PMID: 20210843.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20210843/

Straub RH. The brain and immune system prompt energy shortage in chronic inflammation and ageing. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017 Dec;13(12):743-751. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2017.172. Epub 2017 Oct 12. PMID: 29021568.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29021568/

¹⁴             Cohen S, Danzaki K, MacIver NJ. Nutritional effects on T-cell immunometabolism. Eur J Immunol. 2017 Feb;47(2):225-235. doi: 10.1002/eji.201646423. Epub 2017 Jan 24. PMID: 28054344; PMCID: PMC5342627.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28054344/

Saucillo DC, Gerriets VA, Sheng J, Rathmell JC, Maciver NJ. Leptin metabolically licenses T cells for activation to link nutrition and immunity. J Immunol. 2014 Jan 1;192(1):136-44. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301158. Epub 2013 Nov 22. PMID: 24273001; PMCID: PMC3872216.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24273001/

Naylor C, Petri WA Jr. Leptin Regulation of Immune Responses. Trends Mol Med. 2016 Feb;22(2):88-98. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2015.12.001. Epub 2016 Jan 14. PMID: 26776093.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26776093/

Mantzoros CS, Magkos F, Brinkoetter M, Sienkiewicz E, Dardeno TA, Kim SY, Hamnvik OP, Koniaris A. Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct;301(4):E567-84. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00315.2011. Epub 2011 Jul 26. PMID: 21791620; PMCID: PMC3191548.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21791620/

¹⁵             Barber C. The Problem of ‘Long Haul’ COVID. More and more patients are dealing with major symptoms that linger for months. Scientific American December 29, 2020

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-problem-of-long-haul-covid/

¹⁶             Sudre CH, Murray B, Varsavsky T, Graham MS, Penfold RS, Bowyer RC, Pujol JC, Klaser K, Antonelli M, Canas LS, Molteni E, Modat M, Jorge Cardoso M, May A, Ganesh S, Davies R, Nguyen LH, Drew DA, Astley CM, Joshi AD, Merino J, Tsereteli N, Fall T, Gomez MF, Duncan EL, Menni C, Williams FMK, Franks PW, Chan AT, Wolf J, Ourselin S, Spector T, Steves CJ. Attributes and predictors of long COVID. Nat Med. 2021 Mar 10. doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01292-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33692530.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33692530/

Nalbandian A, Sehgal K, Gupta A, Madhavan MV, McGroder C, Stevens JS, Cook JR, Nordvig AS, Shalev D, Sehrawat TS, Ahluwalia N, Bikdeli B, Dietz D, Der-Nigoghossian C, Liyanage-Don N, Rosner GF, Bernstein EJ, Mohan S, Beckley AA, Seres DS, Choueiri TK, Uriel N, Ausiello JC, Accili D, Freedberg DE, Baldwin M, Schwartz A, Brodie D, Garcia CK, Elkind MSV, Connors JM, Bilezikian JP, Landry DW, Wan EY. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nat Med. 2021 Mar 22. doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01283-z. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33753937.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33753937/

Office for National Statistics. Prevalence of ongoing symptoms following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in the UK: 1 April 2021

https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/prevalenceofongoingsymptomsfollowingcoronaviruscovid19infectionintheuk/1april2021

¹⁷             Badman MK, Flier JS. The gut and energy balance: visceral allies in the obesity wars. Science. 2005 Mar 25;307(5717):1909-14. doi: 10.1126/science.1109951. PMID: 15790843.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15790843/

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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22271169/

Recchiuti A. As a matter of fat: Leptin, monocyte hyperactivation, and COVID-19: A commentary to “Leptin correlates with monocytes activation and severe condition in COVID-19 patients”. J Leukoc Biol. 2021 Apr 13. doi: 10.1002/JLB.3CE1220-799R. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33847393.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33847393/

¹⁸             Cohen S, Danzaki K, MacIver NJ. Nutritional effects on T-cell immunometabolism. Eur J Immunol. 2017 Feb;47(2):225-235. doi: 10.1002/eji.201646423. Epub 2017 Jan 24. PMID: 28054344; PMCID: PMC5342627.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28054344/

Fischer HJ, Sie C, Schumann E, Witte AK, Dressel R, van den Brandt J, Reichardt HM. The Insulin Receptor Plays a Critical Role in T Cell Function and Adaptive Immunity. J Immunol. 2017 Mar 1;198(5):1910-1920. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1601011. Epub 2017 Jan 23. PMID: 28115529.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28115529/

Tsai S, Clemente-Casares X, Zhou AC, Lei H, Ahn JJ, Chan YT, Choi O, Luck H, Woo M, Dunn SE, Engleman EG, Watts TH, Winer S, Winer DA. Insulin Receptor-Mediated Stimulation Boosts T Cell Immunity during Inflammation and Infection. Cell Metab. 2018 Dec 4;28(6):922-934.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.08.003. Epub 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30174303.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30174303/

¹⁹             Cohen S, Danzaki K, MacIver NJ. Nutritional effects on T-cell immunometabolism. Eur J Immunol. 2017 Feb;47(2):225-235. doi: 10.1002/eji.201646423. Epub 2017 Jan 24. PMID: 28054344; PMCID: PMC5342627.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28054344/

Fedele D, De Francesco A, Riso S, Collo A. Obesity, malnutrition, and trace element deficiency in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: An overview. Nutrition. 2021 Jan;81:111016. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2020.111016. Epub 2020 Sep 8. PMID: 33059127; PMCID: PMC7832575.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33059127/

Francisco V, Pino J, Campos-Cabaleiro V, Ruiz-Fernández C, Mera A, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Gómez R, Gualillo O. Obesity, Fat Mass and Immune System: Role for Leptin. Front Physiol. 2018 Jun 1;9:640. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00640. PMID: 29910742; PMCID: PMC5992476.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29910742/

Pérez-Pérez A, Vilariño-García T, Fernández-Riejos P, Martín-González J, Segura-Egea JJ, Sánchez-Margalet V. Role of leptin as a link between metabolism and the immune system. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2017 Jun;35:71-84. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2017.03.001. Epub 2017 Mar 4. PMID: 28285098.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28285098/

²º             Brzeska A, Swidrowska J, Smolewska E. Leptin as an Important Hormone and Immunomodulator in Adult and Childhood Rheumatoid Arthritis. Global Journal of Immunology and Allergic Diseases, 2013, 1, 16-24.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314946274_Leptin_as_an_Important_Hormone_and_Immunomodulator_in_Adult_and_Childhood_Rheumatoid_Arthritis

²¹             La Cava A. Leptin in inflammation and autoimmunity. Cytokine. 2017 Oct;98:51-58. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2016.10.011. PMID: 27916613; PMCID: PMC5453851.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27916613/

Francisco V, Pino J, Campos-Cabaleiro V, Ruiz-Fernández C, Mera A, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Gómez R, Gualillo O. Obesity, Fat Mass and Immune System: Role for Leptin. Front Physiol. 2018 Jun 1;9:640. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00640. PMID: 29910742; PMCID: PMC5992476.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29910742/

Pérez-Pérez A, Vilariño-García T, Fernández-Riejos P, Martín-González J, Segura-Egea JJ, Sánchez-Margalet V. Role of leptin as a link between metabolism and the immune system. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2017 Jun;35:71-84. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2017.03.001. Epub 2017 Mar 4. PMID: 28285098.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28285098/

Pérez-Pérez A, Sánchez-Jiménez F, Vilariño-García T, Sánchez-Margalet V. Role of Leptin in Inflammation and Vice Versa. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Aug 16;21(16):5887. doi: 10.3390/ijms21165887. PMID: 32824322; PMCID: PMC7460646.        

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32824322/

Abella V, Scotece M, Conde J, Pino J, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Gómez-Reino JJ, Mera A, Lago F, Gómez R, Gualillo O. Leptin in the interplay of inflammation, metabolism and immune system disorders. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017 Feb;13(2):100-109. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2016.209. Epub 2017 Jan 5. PMID: 28053336.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28053336/

de Candia P, Prattichizzo F, Garavelli S, Alviggi C, La Cava A, Matarese G. The pleiotropic roles of leptin in metabolism, immunity, and cancer. J Exp Med. 2021 May 3;218(5):e20191593. doi: 10.1084/jem.20191593. PMID: 33857282.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33857282/

Fernández-Riejos P, Najib S, Santos-Alvarez J, Martín-Romero C, Pérez-Pérez A, González-Yanes C, Sánchez-Margalet V. Role of leptin in the activation of immune cells. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:568343. doi: 10.1155/2010/568343. Epub 2010 Mar 23. PMID: 20368778; PMCID: PMC2846344.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20368778/

²²             Iikuni N, Lam QL, Lu L, Matarese G, La Cava A. Leptin and Inflammation. Curr Immunol Rev. 2008 May 1;4(2):70-79. doi: 10.2174/157339508784325046. PMID: 20198122; PMCID: PMC2829991.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20198122/

²³             Wang J, Xu Y, Zhang X, Wang S, Peng Z, Guo J, Jiang H, Liu J, Xie Y, Wang J, Li X, Liao J, Wan C, Yu L, Hu J, Liu B, Liu Z. Leptin correlates with monocytes activation and severe condition in COVID-19 patients. J Leukoc Biol. 2021 Jan 6. doi: 10.1002/JLB.5HI1020-704R. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33404078.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33404078/

                Recchiuti A. As a matter of fat: Leptin, monocyte hyperactivation, and COVID-19: A commentary to “Leptin correlates with monocytes activation and severe condition in COVID-19 patients”. J Leukoc Biol. 2021 Apr 13. doi: 10.1002/JLB.3CE1220-799R. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33847393.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33847393/

²⁴             Cohen S, Danzaki K, MacIver NJ. Nutritional effects on T-cell immunometabolism. Eur J Immunol. 2017 Feb;47(2):225-235. doi: 10.1002/eji.201646423. Epub 2017 Jan 24. PMID: 28054344; PMCID: PMC5342627.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28054344/

²⁵             Zakka K, Chidambaram S, Mansour S, Mahawar K, Salminen P, Almino R, Schauer P, Kinross J, Purkayastha S; PanSurg Collaborative. SARS-CoV-2 and Obesity: “CoVesity”-a Pandemic Within a Pandemic. Obes Surg. 2021 Apr;31(4):1745-1754. doi: 10.1007/s11695-020-04919-0. Epub 2021 Jan 22. PMID: 33479921; PMCID: PMC7819768.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33479921/

²⁶             Könner AC, Brüning JC. Selective insulin and leptin resistance in metabolic disorders. Cell Metab. 2012 Aug 8;16(2):144-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.07.004. PMID: 22883229.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22883229/

Münzberg H, Flier JS, Bjørbaek C. Region-specific leptin resistance within the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese mice. Endocrinology. 2004 Nov;145(11):4880-9. doi: 10.1210/en.2004-0726. Epub 2004 Jul 22. PMID: 15271881.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15271881/

²⁷             Könner AC, Brüning JC. Selective insulin and leptin resistance in metabolic disorders. Cell Metab. 2012 Aug 8;16(2):144-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.07.004. PMID: 22883229.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22883229/

²⁸             Pawelec G. The human immunosenescence phenotype: does it exist? Semin Immunopathol. 2020 Oct;42(5):537-544. doi: 10.1007/s00281-020-00810-3. Epub 2020 Aug 5. PMID: 32757035; PMCID: PMC7405710.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32757035/

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