Waterstofgaswater: revolutionaire antioxidantentherapie

Los een beetje waterstofgas (H2) op in je drinkwater, neem daarvan zo’n 1,5 liter per dag en consumeer daarmee een hoeveelheid antioxidanten die gelijk staat aan 38 worteltjes, 516 appels of 756 bananen (1). Hebben de antioxidant onderzoekers (2) zich decennia voor niets in het zweet gewerkt? Of is dit te mooi om waar te zijn?

Waterstof is het meest voorkomende en kleinste scheikundige element in het universum. Het is de brandstof voor kernfusie in onze zon en sterren, en mogelijk een schoon alternatief voor ons aardgas. Uit voedingsvezels maken bacteriën in onze dikke darm ruime hoeveelheden waterstofgas. Hiervan wordt ongeveer de helft opgenomen en uitgeademd (3-8). In ademhalingsgas wordt waterstofgas reeds lang gebruikt voor zeer diepe duiken in de zee (9,10). De FDA heeft waterstofgas volkomen veilig verklaard (7).

Pas in 2007 kwam waterstofgas in de geneeskunde goed in beeld (9,11-13). In een kleine studie van vier weken werd onlangs bij gezonde personen (20-59 jaar) gekeken naar de effecten van het drinken van water-met-waterstofgas versus gewoon-water. In de waterstofgroep daalde de ontstekingsactiviteit. De antioxidantcapaciteit en het gehalte aan witte bloedcellen steeg. Vooral in 30-plussers (14). Dit is nog geen vermindering van ziekte of sterfte, maar wél veelbelovend.

Het ontgift alleen schadelijke en nutteloze vrije radicalen en laat de nuttige ongemoeid

Ontsteking is betrokken bij veel ziekteprocessen, zo niet alle. Zeg je ontsteking, dan zeg je ‘oxidatieve stress’ (9,15-17). Het lichaam produceert dan meer ‘vrije radicalen’ dan het aankan. Dat zijn zeer reactieve verbindingen van zuurstof of stikstof die enorme schade kunnen aanrichten. Vrije radicalen zijn niet alleen maar slecht. Ze zijn onmisbaar bij het opwekken van energie, voor ontgifting, het overbrengen van signalen en het doden van micro-organismen (9,15). We houden ze in de hand door middel van antioxidantia, zoals vitamine C. En met ontgiftingsenzymen, zoals het selenium-bevattende glutathion peroxidase en het ijzer-bevattende katalase. Gevaarlijk wordt het als de vorming van vrije radicalen uit de hand dreigt te lopen.

Dat kan gebeuren bij een acuut ontstekingsproces, zoals bij COVID-19 (18,19), hartinfarct (20), herseninfarct (21,22) of hersentrauma (23), maar ook bij mildere vormen van chronische ontsteking. Denk daarbij aan neurodegeneratie, zoals de ziektes zoals Alzheimer en Parkinson (24), amyotrofische laterale sclerose (ALS) en multiple sclerose (MS) (9,25,26). En aan diabetes (27), atherosclerose (28), kanker (29), reumatoïde artritis (30), stress (31), depressie (32), orgaan transplantaties (33), metabool syndroom (34-37) en het verouderingsproces (9,25,38).

Waterstofgas is een radicaalvernietiger. Er zijn geen nadelen van bekend. Het ontgift alleen de schadelijke en nutteloze vrije radicalen en laat de nuttige ongemoeid (39). Berucht vanwege hun schadelijkheid zijn vooral het hydroxylradicaal en peroxinitriet (40), zij vernietigen celmembranen, oxideren DNA en deactiveren eiwitten (41). Met waterstofgas zijn intussen gunstige resultaten geboekt bij nagenoeg alle ziektes en orgaansystemen (9,14-38,42). Het verbetert ook de fysieke prestatie (8,10,43,44). Toediening vindt plaats als oplossing in het drinkwater, gemengd in de inademingslucht (45) en direct in de bloedbaan opgelost in fysiologisch zout. Je kunt ook in waterstofgasrijk water baden of het in je ogen druppelen (9,17,29). Via de ademhalingslucht dreigt boven de 4 procent in theorie ontploffingsgevaar, maar dit is technisch opgelost (46,47). Een unieke toepassing lijkt weggelegd voor hersenziektes (26,31,48,49). Want als het kleinste molecuul in het heelal komt waterstofgas met gemak overal (50).

Deze column verscheen in Uitzicht nr. 3 van 2021 en leidde tot een stroom van lezersvragen. Die worden in dit artikel beantwoord.

                Antioxidanten

1.             Zenii hydrogen solutions. The Antioxidant Value of drinking HYDROGEN WATER. Accessed 3 March 2021.    

https://zenii.co.za/the-antioxidant-value-of-drinking-hydrogen-water/

2.             Percival M. Antioxidants. Clinical Nutrition Insights 1/96 Rev. 10/98. Advanced Nutrition Publications, Inc., Revised 1998

https://acudoc.com/Antioxidants.PDF

                Waterstofproductie door darmbacteriën, flatus, opname, uitscheiding in ademhalingslucht

3.             Marthinsen D, Fleming SE. Excretion of breath and flatus gases by humans consuming high-fiber diets. J Nutr. 1982 Jun;112(6):1133-43. doi: 10.1093/jn/112.6.1133. PMID: 6283045.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6283045/

4.             Strocchi A, Levitt MD. Maintaining intestinal H2 balance: credit the colonic bacteria. Gastroenterology. 1992 Apr;102(4 Pt 1):1424-6. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(92)90790-6. PMID: 1551553.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1551553/

5.             Hammer HF. Colonic hydrogen absorption: quantification of its effect on hydrogen accumulation caused by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates. Gut. 1993 Jun;34(6):818-22. doi: 10.1136/gut.34.6.818. PMID: 8314516; PMCID: PMC1374269.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8314516/

6.             Däbritz J, Mühlbauer M, Domagk D, Voos N, Henneböhl G, Siemer ML, Foell D. Significance of hydrogen breath tests in children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption. BMC Pediatr. 2014 Feb 27;14:59. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-59. PMID: 24575947; PMCID: PMC3975941.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24575947/

7.             FDA Safety on hydrogen gas no 520 GRAS Notice no 520, 2014.

                http://www.rexresearch.com/bghealth/ucm409796.pdf

8.             Ostojic SM. Exercise-Driven Increase in Gut Microbial Hydrogen Production as a Possible Factor of Metabolic Health. Front Physiol. 2020 Sep 2;11:1065. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.01065. PMID: 32982793; PMCID: PMC7492653.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32982793/

                Waterstofgas in diepzeeduiken

9.             Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications. Methods Enzymol. 2015;555:289-317. doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2014.11.038. Epub 2015 Jan 21. PMID: 25747486.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25747486/

10.           Ostojic SM. Hydrogen Gas as an Exotic Performance-Enhancing Agent: Challenges and Opportunities. Curr Pharm Des. 2020 Sep 22. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666200922155242. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32962610.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32962610/

                Reviews gezondheidsaspecten van waterstofgas

9.             Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications. Methods Enzymol. 2015;555:289-317. doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2014.11.038. Epub 2015 Jan 21. PMID: 25747486.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25747486/

11.           Barancik M, Kura B, LeBaron TW, Bolli R, Buday J, Slezak J. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Associated with Effects of Molecular Hydrogen in Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Dec 15;9(12):1281. doi: 10.3390/antiox9121281. PMID: 33333951; PMCID: PMC7765453.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33333951/

12.           Yang M, Dong Y, He Q, Zhu P, Zhuang Q, Shen J, Zhang X, Zhao M. Hydrogen: A Novel Option in Human Disease Treatment. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 Sep 5;2020:8384742. doi: 10.1155/2020/8384742. PMID: 32963703; PMCID: PMC7495244.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32963703/

13.           Abisso TG, Adzavon YM, Zhao P, Zhang X, Zhang X, Liu M, Wang L, Ma X, Zhen W. Current Progress in Molecular Hydrogen Medication: Protective and Therapeutic Uses of Hydrogen against Different Disease Scenarios

                Oxidatieve stress en ontsteking

9.             Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications. Methods Enzymol. 2015;555:289-317. doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2014.11.038. Epub 2015 Jan 21. PMID: 25747486.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25747486/

15.           Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39(1):44-84. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001. Epub 2006 Aug 4. PMID: 16978905.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16978905/

16.           Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015 Jan;30(1):11-26. doi: 10.1007/s12291-014-0446-0. Epub 2014 Jul 15. PMID: 25646037; PMCID: PMC4310837.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25646037/

17.           Biswas SK. Does the Interdependence between Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Explain the Antioxidant Paradox? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:5698931. doi: 10.1155/2016/5698931. Epub 2016 Jan 5. PMID: 26881031; PMCID: PMC4736408.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26881031/

                Dierexperimenten en trials in mensen met waterstofgas

14.           Sim M, Kim CS, Shon WJ, Lee YK, Choi EY, Shin DM. Hydrogen-rich water reduces inflammatory responses and prevents apoptosis of peripheral blood cells in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 22;10(1):12130. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-68930-2. PMID: 32699287; PMCID: PMC7376192.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32699287/

18.           Guan WJ, Wei CH, Chen AL, Sun XC, Guo GY, Zou X, Shi JD, Lai PZ, Zheng ZG, Zhong NS. Hydrogen/oxygen mixed gas inhalation improves disease severity and dyspnea in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in a recent multicenter, open-label clinical trial. J Thorac Dis. 2020 Jun;12(6):3448-3452. doi: 10.21037/jtd-2020-057. Erratum in: J Thorac Dis. 2020 Aug;12(8):4591-4592. PMID: 32642277; PMCID: PMC7330772.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32642277/

19.           Yang F, Yue R, Luo X, Liu R, Huang X. Hydrogen: A Potential New Adjuvant Therapy for COVID-19 Patients. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Oct 15;11:543718. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.543718. PMID: 33178011; PMCID: PMC7593510.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33178011/

20.           Katsumata Y, Sano F, Abe T, Tamura T, Fujisawa T, Shiraishi Y, Kohsaka S, Ueda I, Homma K, Suzuki M, Okuda S, Maekawa Y, Kobayashi E, Hori S, Sasaki J, Fukuda K, Sano M. The Effects of Hydrogen Gas Inhalation on Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevated Myocardial Infarction - First Pilot Study in Humans. Circ J. 2017 Jun 23;81(7):940-947. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-17-0105. Epub 2017 Mar 17. PMID: 28321000.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28321000/

21.           Ono H, Nishijima Y, Adachi N, Sakamoto M, Kudo Y, Kaneko K, Nakao A, Imaoka T. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level. Med Gas Res. 2012 Aug 23;2(1):21. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-21. PMID: 22916706; PMCID: PMC3457852.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22916706/

22.           Ono H, Nishijima Y, Ohta S, Sakamoto M, Kinone K, Horikosi T, Tamaki M, Takeshita H, Futatuki T, Ohishi W, Ishiguro T, Okamoto S, Ishii S, Takanami H. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Treatment in Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study on Safety and Neuroprotection. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Nov;26(11):2587-2594. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.06.012. Epub 2017 Jun 29. PMID: 28669654.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28669654/

23.           Dohi K, Kraemer BC, Erickson MA, McMillan PJ, Kovac A, Flachbartova Z, Hansen KM, Shah GN, Sheibani N, Salameh T, Banks WA. Molecular hydrogen in drinking water protects against neurodegenerative changes induced by traumatic brain injury. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 24;9(9):e108034. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108034. PMID: 25251220; PMCID: PMC4176020.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25251220/

24.           Yoritaka A, Takanashi M, Hirayama M, Nakahara T, Ohta S, Hattori N. Pilot study of H₂ therapy in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2013 Jun;28(6):836-9. doi: 10.1002/mds.25375. Epub 2013 Feb 11. PMID: 23400965.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23400965/

25.           Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Oct;144(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006. Epub 2014 Apr 24. PMID: 24769081.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24769081/

26.           Hamilton D. Neuroinflammation: The Brain is on fire in a Cytokine Storm   . fxMed 2017. Accessed 03 03 2021.

https://fxmed.co.nz/neuroinflammation-the-brain-is-on-fire-in-a-cytokine-storm/

27.           Kajiyama S, Hasegawa G, Asano M, Hosoda H, Fukui M, Nakamura N, Kitawaki J, Imai S, Nakano K, Ohta M, Adachi T, Obayashi H, Yoshikawa T. Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutr Res. 2008 Mar;28(3):137-43. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.01.008. PMID: 19083400.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19083400/

28.           Ohsawa I, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Ishikawa M, Ohta S. Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 26;377(4):1195-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.10.156. Epub 2008 Nov 6. PMID: 18996093.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18996093/

29.           Li S, Liao R, Sheng X, Luo X, Zhang X, Wen X, Zhou J, Peng K. Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment. Front Oncol. 2019 Aug 6;9:696. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00696. PMID: 31448225; PMCID: PMC6691140.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31448225/

30.           Ishibashi T, Sato B, Rikitake M, Seo T, Kurokawa R, Hara Y, Naritomi Y, Hara H, Nagao T. Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label pilot study. Med Gas Res. 2012 Oct 2;2(1):27. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-27. PMID: 23031079; PMCID: PMC3563451.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23031079/

31.           Nagata K, Nakashima-Kamimura N, Mikami T, Ohsawa I, Ohta S. Consumption of molecular hydrogen prevents the stress-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks during chronic physical restraint in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Jan;34(2):501-8. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.95. Epub 2008 Jun 18. PMID: 18563058.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18563058/

32.           Satoh Y. Potential of Hydrogen for Improving Mental Disorders. Curr Pharm Des. 2020 Nov 12. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666201113095938. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33185151.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33185151/

33.           Buchholz BM, Kaczorowski DJ, Sugimoto R, Yang R, Wang Y, Billiar TR, McCurry KR, Bauer AJ, Nakao A. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates oxidative stress in transplantation induced intestinal graft injury. Am J Transplant. 2008 Oct;8(10):2015-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02359.x. Epub 2008 Aug 22. PMID: 18727697.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18727697/

34.           Nakao A, Toyoda Y, Sharma P, Evans M, Guthrie N. Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome-an open label pilot study. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 Mar;46(2):140-9. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.09-100. Epub 2010 Feb 24. PMID: 20216947; PMCID: PMC2831093.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20216947/

35.           Song G, Li M, Sang H, Zhang L, Li X, Yao S, Yu Y, Zong C, Xue Y, Qin S. Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome. J Lipid Res. 2013 Jul;54(7):1884-93. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M036640. Epub 2013 Apr 22. PMID: 23610159; PMCID: PMC3679390.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23610159/

36.           Ostojic SM. Hydrogen as a Potential Therapeutic in Obesity: Targeting the Brain. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 20:S1043-2760(21)00005-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2021.01.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33485760.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33485760/

37.           LeBaron TW, Singh RB, Fatima G, Kartikey K, Sharma JP, Ostojic SM, Gvozdjakova A, Kura B, Noda M, Mojto V, Niaz MA, Slezak J. The Effects of 24-Week, High-Concentration Hydrogen-Rich Water on Body Composition, Blood Lipid Profiles and Inflammation Biomarkers in Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020 Mar 24;13:889-896. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S240122. PMID: 32273740; PMCID: PMC7102907.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32273740/

38.           Gu Y, Huang CS, Inoue T, Yamashita T, Ishida T, Kang KM, Nakao A. Drinking hydrogen water ameliorated cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 May;46(3):269-76. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.10-19. Epub 2010 Apr 23. PMID: 20490324; PMCID: PMC2872234.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20490324/

                Schadelijke en nuttige radicalen

39.           Ohsawa I, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, Watanabe M, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Katsura K, Katayama Y, Asoh S, Ohta S. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):688-94. doi: 10.1038/nm1577. Epub 2007 May 7. PMID: 17486089.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17486089/

40.           Ge L, Yang M, Yang NN, Yin XX, Song WG. Molecular hydrogen: a preventive and therapeutic medical gas for various diseases. Oncotarget. 2017 Sep 21;8(60):102653-102673. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.21130. PMID: 29254278; PMCID: PMC5731988.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29254278/

41.           Buchholz BM, Kaczorowski DJ, Sugimoto R, Yang R, Wang Y, Billiar TR, McCurry KR, Bauer AJ, Nakao A. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates oxidative stress in transplantation induced intestinal graft injury. Am J Transplant. 2008 Oct;8(10):2015-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02359.x. Epub 2008 Aug 22. PMID: 18727697.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18727697/

                Overzicht van dierexperimenten en trials in mensen met waterstofgas

42.           Zenii hydrogen solutions. Learn more about the wide-ranging potential benefits of molecular Hydrogen. Accessed 03 03 2021

                Waterstofgas en fysieke prestatie

8.             Ostojic SM. Exercise-Driven Increase in Gut Microbial Hydrogen Production as a Possible Factor of Metabolic Health. Front Physiol. 2020 Sep 2;11:1065. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.01065. PMID: 32982793; PMCID: PMC7492653.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32982793/

10.           Ostojic SM. Hydrogen Gas as an Exotic Performance-Enhancing Agent: Challenges and Opportunities. Curr Pharm Des. 2020 Sep 22. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666200922155242. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32962610.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32962610/

43.           Dobashi S, Takeuchi K, Koyama K. Hydrogen-rich water suppresses the reduction in blood total antioxidant capacity induced by 3 consecutive days of severe exercise in physically active males. Med Gas Res. 2020 Jan-Mar;10(1):21-26. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.279979. PMID: 32189665; PMCID: PMC7871940.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32189665/

44.           Shibayama Y, Dobashi S, Arisawa T, Fukuoka T, Koyama K. Impact of hydrogen-rich gas mixture inhalation through nasal cannula during post-exercise recovery period on subsequent oxidative stress, muscle damage, and exercise performances in men. Med Gas Res. 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):155-162. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.304222. PMID: 33380581.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33380581/

                Waterstofgas toedieningsvormen

9.             Ohta S. Molecular hydrogen as a novel antioxidant: overview of the advantages of hydrogen for medical applications. Methods Enzymol. 2015;555:289-317. doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2014.11.038. Epub 2015 Jan 21. PMID: 25747486.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25747486/

17.           Biswas SK. Does the Interdependence between Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Explain the Antioxidant Paradox? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:5698931. doi: 10.1155/2016/5698931. Epub 2016 Jan 5. PMID: 26881031; PMCID: PMC4736408.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26881031/

29.           Li S, Liao R, Sheng X, Luo X, Zhang X, Wen X, Zhou J, Peng K. Hydrogen Gas in Cancer Treatment. Front Oncol. 2019 Aug 6;9:696. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00696. PMID: 31448225; PMCID: PMC6691140.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31448225/

45.           Sano M, Ichihara G, Katsumata Y, Hiraide T, Hirai A, Momoi M, Tamura T, Ohata S, Kobayashi E. Pharmacokinetics of a single inhalation of hydrogen gas in pigs. PLoS One. 2020 Jun 19;15(6):e0234626. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234626. PMID: 32559239; PMCID: PMC7304914.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32559239/

46.           Lin HY, Lai PC, Chen WL. A narrative review of hydrogen-oxygen mixture for medical purpose and the inhaler thereof. Med Gas Res. 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):193-200. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.295226. PMID: 33380588.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33380588/

47.           Sano M, Shirakawa K, Katsumata Y, Ichihara G, Kobayashi E. Low-Flow Nasal Cannula Hydrogen Therapy. J Clin Med Res. 2020 Oct;12(10):674-680. doi: 10.14740/jocmr4323. Epub 2020 Sep 21. PMID: 33029275; PMCID: PMC7524558.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33029275/

                Waterstofgas en hersenziektes

26.           Hamilton D. Neuroinflammation: The Brain is on fire in a Cytokine Storm   . fxMed 2017. Accessed 03 03 2021.

https://fxmed.co.nz/neuroinflammation-the-brain-is-on-fire-in-a-cytokine-storm/

31.           Nagata K, Nakashima-Kamimura N, Mikami T, Ohsawa I, Ohta S. Consumption of molecular hydrogen prevents the stress-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks during chronic physical restraint in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Jan;34(2):501-8. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.95. Epub 2008 Jun 18. PMID: 18563058.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18563058/

48.           Iketani M, Ohsawa I. Molecular Hydrogen as a Neuroprotective Agent. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017;15(2):324-331. doi: 10.2174/1570159×14666160607205417. PMID: 27281176; PMCID: PMC5412697.        

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27281176/

49.           Chen W, Zhang HT, Qin SC. Neuroprotective Effects of Molecular Hydrogen: A Critical Review. Neurosci Bull. 2020 Oct 20. doi: 10.1007/s12264-020-00597-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33078374.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33078374/

                Verspreiding van waterstofgas over de organen

50.           Yamamoto R, Homma K, Suzuki S, Sano M, Sasaki J. Hydrogen gas distribution in organs after inhalation: Real-time monitoring of tissue hydrogen concentration in rat. Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 4;9(1):1255. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38180-4. PMID: 30718910; PMCID: PMC6362202.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30718910/

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